Horizontal Expansion ____________________
Horizontal expansion is specified in the !+GRID+ code by
placing a number after the symbol to be expanded. Thus, the
symbol "A" is interpreted as the grid character "" by FRESS (see
Figure 4.3). The string "A3" is interpreted to mean, "using the
appropriate horizontal expansion character, extend the grid
character represented by the symbol "A" to a length of 3
characters." By specifying "A3," therefore, the user causes ""
to be printed. Similarly, "E5" results in "" and "2"
results in " " (horizontal expansion characters can be found in
Figure 4.4).
Iteration _________
The pattern described by a grid character symbol and its
expansion may be repeated by preceding the symbol with an
iteration _________ number. Thus, "3E2" means that the pattern represented
by the symbol and expansion number "E2" is to be printed three
times, or

The row _______
A pattern specification such as "A," "4D3," and so on, is
string called a ______. Strings may be combined, if they are separated
by commas, to specify horizontal patterns more complex than the
ones we have seen so far. For example, "A2,3B2,C" results in

The string or strings used in a !+GRID+ code are always enclosed
in parentheses; the combination of strings inside parentheses is
row at least one row called a ___. A !+GRID+ code must consist of ________________,
at least one string and that row must consist of ___________________.
40 -- Section 4. Release 9.1 FRESS Resource Manual
Vertical Expansion __________________
Whereas grid characters may be expanded individually in the
vertical expansion horizontal direction, ________ _________ applies to an entire row.
Vertical expansion is specified much the same way as horizontal
expansion is: the row to be expanded is followed by a vertical
expansion specification. (Vertical expansion characters are shown
in Figure 4.4 under the "V" column.)
Thus, while the row "(A2,3B2,C)" results in

"(A2,3B2,C)3" results in

The row has been expanded to a length of three in the vertical
Vertical iteration __________________
and its expansion A row ___ ___ _________ can be repeated in the vertical
before direction by means of a vertical iteration number placed ______
the row; this is analogous to the method used to extend a symbol
horizontally. Thus, specifying "3(A2,3B2,C)2" causes the
following to be printed:

It is important to keep in mind that expansion takes place
before ______ iteration, so that it is the expanded grid character
which is repeated.
A row and its modifiers (i.e., vertical iteration and expansion
subgrid specifications) are called a _______. A grid is made of one or
more subgrids, which are separated by commas. The first box of
Figures 4.3 and 4.4 were created with the following !+GRID+
codes respectively:
FRESS Resource Manual Release 9.1 FRESS ReSection 4.3 -- 41
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