ddaileci uat'JSiion of the sortiea, deaperate aad. ekirmilhee in
waeh this gdaat lepm ,... ineeu&utly engaged, would lead \18 too far,
atill we cumot refnm fl'om deearibing one brilliant exploit, ee1eoted from
otaen·M· leal remazk:able.

SeDt ofF a dinanoe of 300 leagaea to dislodge the enemy from 8 pro­
't'i.nce whioh their presence ditturbed, Garibaldi, with. 184. legion8rie&,
&ud a of homemen, fought for eight hours ag&m.t l,liOO mea,
without yielding 1111 inch of ground. When nigllt fell, the Guerillero'a
little band wu reduced to half ita original 35 were killed, 50
aerioualy -.vmmded. The BU.rrivors exhausted by fatigue, and in 11"8D.t of
food, seemed eearce strong enough to drag themaelvee to Salta, where
Garibaldi bad eetabliabed his head quarters. :&t to leave the wounded
at the me'rcy of the :


AyriaDB, already ao irritated by their defeat,
could enw tile mind of such 8 CCPDlDnder. The wounded were
placed and threes on all the honea that could be collected, ud
taeir CODll'ades, though 110 uhauated, -.vere obliged to support them on
eiihersid•e. BytumsenootlNging,


andpraimlg, Garibaldi, after
a wearyi:rJLg aaroh, which luted no leas than three bonn, had the bappi­
ne• of seeing all hill eomracles in glory sheltered behind the walla of
SaUa. The nelnl of this 1'8Dl8l'kable retreat, as well as of an action in
wmch tJae, eDe1DJ loet more than 500 killed and woliDded, produced BD
isteule e1lthuiaam atMonte Video. The government orderedthatthe date
of the b&We, February 8, &hoold be inscribed in letters of gold on
tbe Sag ofthe legion, while the French admiral commanding at Rio sent
8letter of'c<mgratulation to Garibaldi, declaring " that such exploit. would
have eut fNeh luatre even 0:11. the soldiers ofNapoleon's grand army."

In the autumn of 184.6, Garibaldi returned to Monte Video, after
aoaompliahing his million to the entire aawfaction of Uruguay. .Aa a
reward his br:illimt achievement., the government oonferredon him tae
raDk of g•meral. The Guerillero at firat declined thia honour, but public
10lioitatiom at length induced him to accept it. But it wu otberwiae
with his refuaal of estates and herda for himeelf and his legionariea.
Eatreaty and advice-all was powerleaa to lhalce hill determination. He
protested that the Italians of lloate Video bad taken up arms only "to
obey tae appeal of liberty and aot thNugh ambitious viewa ofprofit or
promotio!L.'' Ally persilltance, after 10 clear a deelaration, would baTe
wounded his pride. This refuaal on Garibaldi's part waa the more
meritori01:u, when it wu known, at a later date, t1u.t at the moment he
gave it, hill family aad himtelf were reduced to live OD 1W ratione, and aa
these did not include amdles, the general' a house wu Dever illuminated

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: at night. Wllten G.nenJ Pacheco y Obes, at that time Wez Minister,



laamed this &n, he eent hls .Aide-de-camp to him (aa he hlmeelf tella u)
with a sum of twenty pounds. Garillaldi accepted halt' thia amount for
the most p:reesing


of his family, and begged that the other lWf
should be givm1 to a widow whoae D&me he mentioned. "She needs it.
more than I do," he said. What commentary on our partcould heighten
the splendour •Of such an action P

The kindly feeliogs the inhabitants of all ranks entertaiaed for him,
the confidence the government placed in him. and tae claims he had
created by his constant efforts during the war, were never considered by
Garibaldito co,nstitute any title to pereou.l recompense ; thus the pardon
of a conspirator or the liberty of a captive waa the only favOIU' he wu
willing to solioit. The memorable soldier and memorable sailor, was soon
about to leave the country rendered ao illustrious by his prowess ; but
one laurel wu1 wanting for his glorious .orown, and he determined to pluck
it. On the 8th February, 184.8, in the plain of St. Anthony, at the Topera
di &m Veaczll.l:io, Garibaldi displayed such boldness and courage that the
Ita.lian.name, even now, has a dear and revered sound in the ears of the

Since the period that Garibaldi had le£1; Piedmont, great events had
taken place in. Italy. The most extraordinary was the election in Jane,
184.6, of a Pope, sa.id to be liberal, two words which have .in all times.
passed 88 incomp&tible, .and will, doubtlessly, remain so to all eternity.
Garibaldi, ho,rever, momentarily ahared the general illusion, and the new
pontiff seeml!d to him destined to become the regenerator of Italy.
Avezani, one of his most intimate friends, entertained the same hopes, and
they therewrote in concert to the Papal Nuncio at Bio Janeiro, " If
arms, not unaccustomed to warfare, can be useful to hia Holiness, wo
offer them wiUingly io the man who knows so well how to aid the Church
and our country sinmltaneously. Provided that it be for the progreas of
the work of redemption commenced by Pio Nono, we shall consider our­
selves privileired ifwe can seal our devotion with our blood." This letter
of Garibaldi deserves attention, for it proves that, in his eyes, the libera­
tion of Italy is above all question of men or political and :religious senti­
menta. During the last contest, some persons felt surprised that he, the
republican, oifered his sword to a king to fight Austria : the offer waa not'
new, 88 we shall presently see; and, in any case, there waa no caaae for
surprise, as, believing in a Pope inclined to regenerate his country,
Garibaldi had formerly offered to enrol himself beneath the papa


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