diplomatic relations between the two countries, and Italy gave way to
intoxicating joy at the thought of the coming contesl. The provinces
most held in subjection by the Croats evinced their affection for the Re
galantwmto and his Ministers, by means peculiar to the I talian character.
The preferred by smokers were called Ca11ourini, and the cry
wasevery where raised of "Vxv.A. VBBDI," for those letters typified the
lavouritAit sentence, V itta Victo,. Emmanuele Re D'ltalia.

In the> meanwhile, France attempted a reconciliation between the hro
sulking powers, but her efforts availed nothing. Under these circum­
stances, she took the part of Piedmont decidedly, and several sharp
notes w1ere interchanged, followed by that memorable address to lf.
de Hubner, on January 1,1859, which created a consternation throughout

On JB,nuary 3rd, 8th, 14th, 185!l, an order of tho day, addressed to tho
National GuardofTurin, by the Commander·in·ehief, foreboded grave eom­
plicatioills. Two days later, Victor Emanuel, on opening Porlia!llent,
delivered a discourse, in which there were several signifil'ant passageJJ.
Tho DE,puties, in their reply, displayed their perfect confidence in the
king, and promised tho aid of the nation, whate¥cr C\'entualities might
arise. Austria, howe,·er, was making formidable preparations; abe had
already 84,000 men, of all arms, in Lombardo. Venetia, and \\'as
or enlarging t.he fortificationR of V crona, Man tun, Milan. and Pavia. The
Sardinizm lea¥ing the maintenance of publir order to the
National Guard, massed ita regular troops along the frontier. The
marriage of Prince nod the PrinN·ss Clotilda in the same
month, was, however, a more valuable defence than any tho country
could supply.

We need not dwell on nil the c\·cnts which preeeded tho war, or the

vain efforts made by the whole diplomatic body to prevent it. Cavour

had m&Ale up his mind to fight, nnd it is possible that the Emperor of the

French was fully prepared to aid him, in spite of his pacific efforts.

Dnring the diplomatic crisis, however, It11ly was growing greatly agitated,

and manifestations took place which the reinforcement of tho Austrian

garrisons could not prevent. While the students refused to learn Ger.

man, Milan, Verona, Modena, and Pnvia, pronounced energetically

against tho foreigners, and the small prinl'es whom they held under their

thumb. At the same time, the National Society of Turin '\\·as actively

engage(l in paving the way for a revolution, by Sl'nding printed manifestos




from band to hand. Garibaldi was the vice-president of the society, and,
by his initialdve, printed instructions were issued on the 1st March,
1859, in preplll'ation for the coming druggle.

In the pre11ence of the grave eventualities that were ariaing, the Sar­
dinian government now authorized the formation of a corps of volun­
teers. Massea of young men of the beat familiea of Lombardy, Tuaoany,
Parma, Mode:na, &c., flocked in at once to enrol themselves beneath the
banner of Piedmont. Of course, the Italian Volunteers could have no
other commander than Garibaldi. Victor Emanuel, in faot, intended
the command of these heroic yonthe for him, but suth were the unjuat
charges constantly brought against the illustrious Guerillero, that M. de
Cavour at first hesitated to proclaim the choice of the cabinet.

On March 5th, 1859, the declared that the .Emperor of the

French had promised the king of Sardinia to defend him against any

aggressive aet on the part of Austria. Thus, Victor Emanuel, was

wise enough not to commence hostilities, and the support of France was

aasured him in the war, which everybody now believed to be imminent.

Lord Cowley's mi11sion had been a failure, and Austria was preparing to

take the field. She completed her military administration, organised her

hospital staff, and recalled the men on furlough. Her forces in Italy

consisted of t.wenty-three infantry regiments amounting to 140,390 men:

two battalion.a of rifles, 10,280 men ; four border battalions, 5,000 men ;

five regiments of light cavalry, 6,400 sabres; four regiments of artillery,

4,000 men ; siege artillery and rocket brigade, 6,000 men ; pioneers,

1,700; engineers, 3,500; forming a grand total of at least 177,000 men

of all arms.

The French government had recalled from Algeria Renaud's division,

and was taking other military steps to keep the promise made through

the M011ikur..

In the pl'tlf•ence of auch preparations it would have been madnees for
Piedmont to disarm, in obedience to the Austrian note of March Slat.
Since 1850, J>iedmont had maintained, without serious financial embar­
rassment, an army of 49,500 men and 7,650 honea, and could, if neces­
sary, raise it to 112;000 men and 18,750 horses. The government was
the more disposed to place the army on a war footing, for the provinces
as well as thn capital would not allow the national honour to be B&Criflced
for any consideration. And it was not alone in the interior of the State
that this patriotism was shown. Even in foreign countries every man in
whose breast; an Italian heart beat, was impatiently awaiting the com­
mencement of the contest with Austria. A proof of this was seen in

"'· 1zedbyGooglc

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