The Continued-Defeat of the Royalists-The Bishop of Chiusi-March on
Prospecta-Arev.zo-A Renegade-Colonel Forbes-Gent'!'al
Marino-The Surpril!e-The


ON the morning of July 15, Garibaldi left Todi with the main body of
his forces, crossed the river by the bridge of Acuto, and proceeded to
Orvietc1, which town he reached on the 16th. As soon as the arrival of
his column became known, the reactionists hired persons who went
through the streets shouting, "Down with the brigands," but this time
the villanous attempt to turn Italian arms against Italian hearts failed.
The m1!jority of the inhabitants even gave the legionaries a solewn
testimony of their sympathy. The camp had been formed on a plain to
the left of the river Pallia, where a deputation proceeded to the general,
him to enter the town with his soldiers. The offer was accepted,
and the warmth of the reception surpassed everything that could ha¥c
been ell:pected. On July 17, Garibaldi quitted Orvieto, and, crossing the
Tuscan frontier without any obstacle, entered Cetona on the 19th. To
give an idea of the skill and precision with which the geql'ral's mo¥ements
were combined we need only say, that within an hour after the column
left Or1rieto the French occupied that town.

In addition to the carbineers usually guarding Cetona, a strong walled
town, it was garrisoned by two companies of Tuscan regular infantry.
The letLder of these troops was not informed of the approach of the
Garibaldians unlil some armed scouts appeared before the town walls,
whose leader and soldiers fled at full speed. So great was the disorder
and hu1Ty of this flight that Garibaldi on entering the town captured
seven! troopers, who had not time to saddle their horses. An hour
sooner 1md all the garrison would been taken prisoners. The troops
who flecl eo hurriedly from Cetona halted at Chiuai, where, being joined
by BOIIIe rustics, they attempted to prevent Garibaldi's advance by
digging trenches and throwing up barricades across the road.

Doub tful of the point of crossing, and supposing from the march of the
main body on Orvieto that the Garibaldians would attempt to embark on

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board some .A,meriean vessels of war, whicll had shown themselves off
San Stefano, General d 'Aapre had concentrated a large body of troops at
Sienna. Gent!ral Stadion, who commanded them, received instructions
to wait till Garibaldi's movements were more fully developed, but he
must take such a tepa in any as would prevent the colWIUl reaching
the Mediterranean. In addition, Duke Ernest, sent from Florence with
3,000 men, in 1search of Garibaldi, wa.a stationed near Montepulciano, and
wu in a po11ition to attack. All those movements were owing to
confidential CCJ>mmunica.tions made to General D'Aapre by the diplomatic
Agents. Mr. Cass, the .American Envoy at Rome, had repeatedly offered
to protect Garibaldi and his men; the AustriAn Commander, informed of

this fact, hence redoubled his vigilance.

In fact, everybody was combined to pursue and overwhelm this
unlucky column in its retreat. More than once, armed bands of farmers
led by their monks, showed themselves on the summits of the .Appeninea
to cut o.fl' the Garibaldiana who· remained behind the column, and who
lost in the diffieult paths. When they could do nothing
better, these tiwatica served as acouts for the foreigners. But, in spite
of all their adnntages, the Austrians never ventured to offer battle; or
rather, would not do so, until joined by the Tuscan troops, so that they
might save th.eir own men. Hence, the Garibaldians were offered the
cruel alternative of either fighting against Italians who had been their
comrades in Lombardy, or refusing the combat. Garibaldi always chose
the latter, an<l the result redounded to his glory. Rapid marches and
principally at night: the dispersion of the corps in
small columns in various directions : unexpected concentrations,
continual eToRutions, wondrous stratagems, permitted him to avoid a
fratricidal contest, while gradually drawing nearer to his great object.
Soldiers who have studied the details of these combinations and
innumerable stratagems, declare unanimously that they evince the
experience of a consummate general. But what could skill and courage
avail Garibaldi, when he had everything against him, while his opponents
had all in thei:r favour P

In ordel' to reconnoitre the enemy's position, and mask his own designs,
Garibaldi sent a squadron from Cetona in the direction of Sienna. The
wretched con1mander of the troops, lacking, perhaps, heart for the
enterpriae, halted when ten miles from that city. He then sold his
horaes to the enemy, and escaped to .America. Eternal infamy on the
traitor! WhEm the legions reached Foiano, provisions ran short, and the
General, unaware of the made at Chiuai by the fugitivee



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