the greate,st services rendered as commander-in-chief. Still, eo little im­
portance does our hero attach to that sort of thing, that he had not
hesitated 100 serve Rome with the t itlQ of colonel ; but, at the moment
when he 111light have to endure with his legion the principal weight of
the contest, a new tiUe seemed indispensable, and the Ministry-of-War
promoted him to the rank of general. Here he was then, for the second
time, in poBBession of the rank regularly conferred. He will obtain it a
third as if to prove his right still more fully to the stars on his

The Ro:man troops were thus arranged : the first brigade, commanded
by Garibaldi, occupied outside the walls the line extending from
the Portesa to the San Pancrazio, Gate ; the second, commanded by
Col. Masi,. was drawn np in front of the Cavallegieri Gate, the Vatican,
and the Augelica Gate; the third, composed of two regiments of dragoons,
was in reserve on the N avona-aquare ; the fourth was also in reserve at
the Nuova and on the Cesarini·square; while Colonel Galetti and
the carbineers, and Major Manara with the Lombard volunteers, held
themaelve1 1 in readiness to proceed wherever they might be wanted.
Along the road from Civita V ecchia to Rome small placards were posted
up, on which could be read, "Art. 5 of the preamble of the French Con­
stitution. The French Republic respects forPign nationalities, as it
intends to make ita own respected ; it undertakes no war of conquest,
and will n•ever employ ita forces against the liberty of any people."

It was fated to be otherwise, and the extremity in which Garibaldi
would soon find himself of fighting against the French was not the least
painful circumstance in his life. But the Roman Republic was attacked,
he had swc•m to defend it, and must do his duty as an Italian and soldier.

On April30, the French army, divided into two columna, marched on
the Cavall•egieri and Angelica gates ; the place of junction, arranged by
the Commander-in-Chief, was the San Pietro-aqnare. The French occupied
two honseu near the Villa Pamphili, and thence opened a sharp fire of
musketry and artillery. Garibaldi attacked their flank with great im­
petuosity, broke them, and made 300 prisoners. Ably seconded by the
artillery under the command of Col. Calandrelli, Col. Masi was equally
successful. The action began at si:r in the morning and lasted seven
hours before the French general ordered his men to retire. It ended
with the exhaustion of the French troops, and their inability to continue
fighting. The French army fell back on Palo, on the road to Cirita
V eochia, and Garibaldi set out in pursuit, but was stopped by the orders
of the triumvirate. Rome celebrated this victory by demonstrations of

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joy, and the JB"rench prisoners were welcomed and treated as brothers.
As fGr the wounded, the attention they received gained the Romans the
thanks of thEt Commander-in-Chief of the French army, aa is seen by a
letter publialLed by M. de Lesaeps, in his memorial to the Council of

On May 2, the triumvirate announced that the Neapolitan troops had
invaded the t4lrritory of the Republic; and on the 7th, that the Austrians
and Spaniardls had followed their example. The N eapolitana approached
from V elletri, the Spaniards , had disembarked at Fiumicino ; the
Austrians wet-e threatening Bologna, while the French were quartered at
Castel - Guido. .A.s we have not apace, however, to describe the arrange­
menta made hy the Roman Republic to resist the quadruple invasion,
we will confin.e ourselves to those relating to our subject.

The French government and General Oudinot had by no means fore­
seen the vigorous resistance offered by the Romans. When the news of
the events of April 30th arrived at Paris, there was a very stormy meeting
in the National Assembly, the result of which was "a vote imposing on
the ministry the obligation not to destroy the Roman Republic by French
arms." M . Drouyn de l'Huys thought it advisable to send M . de Lessepa
to Rome, ancl recommended the latter to save him from a serious im­
peachment. De Leasep's orders were to do all in his power to prevent
any renewal of hoatilitiea, and, on arriving at Rome, he certainly did his
utmost to prevent fresh collisions. The result of his efforts was the con­
tinuation of the truce which the force of affairs had commenced prior to
his arrival. During the suspension of arms, General Oudinot confined
his operatioru1 to "that part of the territory which had Civita V ecchia
for its basis," while the Roman troops, engaged with other adversaries,
were enabled to proceed wherever they believed that "it waa their interest
to do ao." But this period of rest was dearly paid for, as the French
government employed it to send up reinforcements, which rendered any
further impossible.

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